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The building where it all started, the former Balboa High School today bears his name, and is one of the buildings of the Panama Canal Authority, the Panamanian Government Agency created to run the Canal starting from mid-day December 31, 1999. Also, the army claims to have used 340 pounds of bulk CN-1 chemical (weak tear gas) and 120 pounds of CS-1 chemical (strong tear gas). A policeman wielded his club which ripped our flag. The U.S. denied that the infant's death was linked to the use of CS tear gas, in keeping with its claim that it is not a lethal agent. Years after the events of January 1964, a number of U.S. Army historical documents were declassified, including Southcom's figures for ammunition expended. The Panamanian crowds grew as nightfall came, and by 8 p.m. the Canal Zone Police was overwhelmed. Martyrs' Day (Spanish: Día de los Mártires) is a Panamanian day of national mourning which commemorates the January 9, 1964 anti-American riots over sovereignty of the Panama Canal Zone. The witnesses appear to be corroborated by a photograph of Arosemena supporting an injured man, said to have been taken shortly before he was shot. The canal was completed in 1914. Various U.S. accounts claim that all Panamanians who were shot to death were either rioters or else shot by other Panamanians. Canal Zone police tear gassed them. The official Canal Zone Police version is that the police did not shoot directly at anybody, but only fired over the heads or at the feet of rioters. After the fighting, American investigators found over 400 bullets embedded in the Tivoli Hotel. [5], Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}8°57′33″N 79°33′26″W / 8.95917°N 79.55722°W / 8.95917; -79.55722, For other holidays with the same name, see, Flag demonstrations on the boundary between Panama and the Canal Zone, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Flag Demonstration on the boundary between Panama and the Canal Zone", The 'Day of the martyrs' - January 9, 1964, Dean Rusk interview: Lyndon Johnson Presidential Library (see page 37), Study by Uwe Heinrich Documents the chemistry of CS and its effects on the body. At 9 am on Friday, January 9 in the midst of total quarantine, a small group of Panamanians went to the Garden of Peace where the remains of those considered martyrs in the events of 57 years ago rest Commemorated as Martyrs' Day it marks, the day in 1964 when mostly high school students fought to raise the Panamanian flag in the Canal Zone restricted to … The news of the actions of the Balboa High School reached the students at the Instituto Nacional, Panama's top public high school. Fuelled by wild rumours on both sides, the situation escalated into violence with shots being fired. The shooting led to the deaths of 21 Panamanians and four Americans. They had first informed their school principal and the Canal Zone authorities of their plans before setting out on their march. The People's Republic of China, the Soviet Union and Cuba denounced the U.S. in very strong terms. This led to about 200 Panamanian students marching to the High School with a treasured Panama flag that they planned to fly alongside the U.S. It was built by the Panama Canal Authority and consists on a covered entryway containing the memorial, which has a name of a "martyr" on each column, and an eternal fire (not unlike the eternal fire for U.S. President John F. Kennedy) in the middle, and the Panamanian flag afterwards, in a sort of open-to-the-sky (i.e. The Organization of American States, on Brazil's motion, took jurisdiction over the dispute from the United Nations Security Council. From the other end of the ideological spectrum, Spanish dictator Francisco Franco's right-wing Falangist Party accused the United States of aggression against Panama. One was built where the flagpole incident happened, the former Balboa High School, today a Panama Canal Authority building that bears the name of Ascanio Arosemena, known as the first "martyr" and maybe the most famous one. Most Zonian adults sympathized with the student demonstrators. Led by 17-year-old Guillermo Guevara Paz, 150 to 200 demonstrating students from the institute, crossed the street into the Canal Zone and marched through the neighborhoods to Balboa High School, carrying their school's Panamanian flag and a sign proclaiming their country's sovereignty over the U.S. Canal Zone. There are conflicting claims about how the flag was torn. The first steps in that direction were taken shortly thereafter on April 3, 1964, when both countries agreed to an immediate resumption of diplomatic relations and the United States agreed to adopt procedures for the "elimination of the causes of conflict between the two countries". en.wikipedia.org Independent investigators of the events of January 9, 1964 later noted that the flag was made of flimsy silk.[1]. No action was taken on Panama's motion to brand the United States guilty of aggression, but the committee did accuse the Americans of using unnecessary force. As word of the flag desecration incident spread, angry Panamanian crowds formed along and across the border between Panama City and the Canal Zone. The riot started after a Panamanian flag was torn and Panamanian students were killed during a conflict with Canal Zone Police officers and Canal Zone residents. While a Panamanian response to the flag raisings by the Zonians was expected, the crisis took most Americans by surprise. A rival communist commemoration on the same day drew only 300 participants. [citation needed]. Witnesses say that Arosemena died while helping to evacuate wounded protesters from the danger zone. To this day, the issue remains highly contentious, with both sides saying the other instigated the conflict. Two monuments have been built in Panama City to commemorate these events. One of the Panamanian flag bearers, Eligio Carranza, said that "they started shoving us and trying to wrest the flag from us, all the while insulting us. This incident is considered to be the catalyst for the eventual U.S. abolition of the "in perpetuity" control of the Canal Zone and divestiture of its title to property there, with the 1977 signing of the Torrijos–Carter Treaties, which dissolved the Canal Zone in 1979, set a timetable for the closing of U.S. Armed Forces Bases and transferred full control of the Panama Canal to the Panamanian Government at noon, December 31, 1999. The Canal Zone, primarily consisting of the Panama Canal, was a strip of land running from the Pacific Ocean to the Caribbean and had its own police, schools, ports and post offices. A number of U.S. citizen residents of Panama City, particularly military personnel and their families who were unable to get housing on base, were forced to flee their homes. A six-month-old girl, Maritza Ávila Alabarca, died with respiratory problems while her neighborhood was gassed by the U.S. Army with CS tear gas. The incomplete censorship had the side effect of contributing to wild rumors on all sides. Significantly, other governments in the western hemisphere which had long backed U.S. policies declined to back the American position. Martyrs' Day is a Panamanian holiday which commemorates the January 9, 1964 riots over sovereignty of the Panama Canal Zone. One of the students fell or tripped and I believe when he went down the old flag was torn." Over sovereignty of the events of the United States at the Instituto Nacional, Panama 's martyrs can found... Facto if not de jure ) President Chiari is regarded as `` the President of dignity '' motion! Motion, took jurisdiction over the dispute from the danger Zone by Panamanians but intended for American targets Panama United... 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